Legal Ethics

Bell, Derrick, Ethical Ambition, Bloomsbury (2002).
Professor Derrick Bell, the first African-American tenured law professor at Harvard Law School, offers a personal reflection on achieving success while maintaining a life of integrity and purpose. He pursues six principles he deems significant to ethical success: passion, courage and risk taking, relationships, faith, inspiration and humility. In reflecting on the influences of these principles to his own journey, he offers a path for self-reflection and growth to the reader.

Jack, Rand and Jack, Dana Crowley, Moral Vision and Professional Decisions: The Changing Values of Women and Men Lawyers, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY (1989).
Through interviews with 36 attorneys, the authors have explored the thinking patterns of moral thought among women and men attorneys.

Linowitz, Sol, The Betrayed Profession: Lawyering at the End of the Twentieth Century, Harvard University Press (1998).
Linowitz, an elder statesman and former U.S. Ambassador, assesses the state of the legal profession and encourages lawyers to look to the roots and history of the profession. He suggests the lawyer has bartered away his independence and it is time to say “NO” to clients when the course of action requested is morally or ethically questionable.

Critiques of The Legal Profession

Arron, Deborah L. Running from the Law: Why Good Lawyers are Getting out of the Legal Profession, Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, CA (1989).
An anthology of insights and histories of lawyers whose choices made “powerful statements about their values.” One of the early books that broke the conspiracy of silence about dissatisfaction within the legal profession.

Arron, Deborah L. What You Can Do with a Law Degree. A Lawyer’s Guide to Career Alternatives Inside, Outside and Around the Law, Decision Books (2003).Â
The author takes the reader through self-discovery in a structured and practical manner. A useful tool for lawyers in a decision-making process about career choice.

Bachman, Walt, Law vs. Life: What Lawyers are Afraid to Say about the Legal Profession, Four Directions Press, New York, NY (1995).
The author speaks with candor and cynicism about the legal profession. He focuses on the increasing demands of the legal marketplace and the “moral neutering” imposed by what he views as the lawyer’s ethical duty of advocacy.

Kronman, Anthony T, The Lost Lawyer: Failing Ideals of the Legal Profession, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA (1995).
The author describes a spiritual crisis affecting the American Legal Profession. He attributes it to the collapse of what he calls the ideal of the lawyer-statesman: a set of values that prizes good judgment above technical competence and that encourages a public-spirited devotion to the law.

Stefancic and Delgado, How Lawyers Lose Their Way: A Profession Fails Its Creative Minds (Duke University Press, 2005)
This unusual 85-page book uses the story of Archibald MacLeish as the backdrop for raising questions about the efficacy of the legal profession (and then, by analogy, the medical profession) for professionals themselves as well as society at large. The authors focus on “formalism” as the disease to which lawyers, judges, law firms and law schools have succumbed; they loosely offer as a solution the use of “interdisciplinary critical theory.” In the interest of full disclosure, this book should have been the opening chapters of a deeper book.  Nonetheless, it’s a worthy attempt to carve out some new territory in the discussion about the state of the legal profession. Its brevity makes for a useful read as a springboard for discussion.

American Intellectual History

Menand, Louis, The Metaphysical Club: A Story of Ideas in America, Farrar, Straus and Giroux (2001).
Covering American history in the years between the Civil War and the end of the First World War, Menand draws masterful portraits of four giants of American thought – Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., William James, Charles Sanders Pierce, and John Dewey – whose ideas changed the way Americans think.

Alternative & New Paradigms in the Law

Levine, Stewart, Getting to Resolution: Turning Conflict Into Collaboration, Berrett-Koehler, San Francisco, CA (1998).
The author, an attorney and consultant, offers tools that get to the core of conflict with guidelines that help craft collaborative agreements.

Stolle, Dennis P., Wexler, David and Winnick, Bruce, Practicing Therapeutic Jurisprudence: Law as a Helping Profession, Carolina Academic Press, Durham, NC (2000).
The authors offer a unique theoretical paradigm for approaching contemporary legal issues. With emphasis on the psychological impact of law, they demonstrate how this model can operate in a variety of legal settings. The authors offer concrete ways for lawyers to practice law as helping professionals.


The term homeopathy comes from the Greek words homeo, meaning similar, and pathos, meaning suffering or disease.  Homeopathy takes a different approach from conventional medicine in diagnosing, classifying, and treating medical problems.  Homeopathy seeks to stimulate the body’s defense mechanisms and processes so as to prevent or treat illness. Treatment involves giving very small doses of substances called remedies that would produce the same or similar symptoms of illness in healthy people if they were given in larger doses. Treatment in homeopathy is tailored to each individual person. Homeopathic practitioners select remedies according to a total picture of the patient, including not only symptoms but lifestyle, emotional and mental states, and other factors.

In the late 1700s, Samuel Hahnemann, a physician, chemist, and linguist in Germany, proposed a new approach to treating illness. This was at a time when the most common medical treatments were harsh, such as bloodletting, purging, blistering, and the use of sulfur and mercury. At the time, there were few effective medications for treating patients, and knowledge about their effects was limited.  Hahnemann was interested in developing a less-threatening approach to medicine. The first major step reportedly was when he was translating an herbal text and read about a treatment (cinchona bark) used to cure malaria. He took some cinchona bark and observed that, as a healthy person, he developed symptoms that were very similar to malaria symptoms. This led Hahnemann to consider that a substance may create symptoms that it can also relieve. This concept is called the “similia principle” or “like cures like.”

In the fourth century B.C., Hippocrates, the father of modern medicine, observed that large amount of certain natural substances can produce symptoms in healthy people resembling those caused by the disease, while smaller doses of these same substances can relieve those symptoms.  Another way to view “like cures like” is that symptoms are part of the body’s attempt to heal itself–for example, a fever can develop as a result of an immune response to an infection, and a cough may help to eliminate mucus — and medication may be given to support this self-healing response.  Hahnemann tested single, pure substances on himself and, in more dilute forms, on healthy volunteers.  He kept meticulous records of his experiments and participants’ responses, and he combined these observations with information from clinical practice, the known uses of herbs and other medicinal substances, and toxicology, eventually treating the sick and developing homeopathic clinical practice.

There are over 2000 homeopathic remedies, which are made from naturally occurring plant, animal, or mineral substances and such exotic sources as bee stings, snake venoms, arsenic, gold and silica, and even compounds from diseased tissue.  Persons using homeopathy do so to address a range of health concerns, from wellness and prevention to treatment of injuries, diseases, and conditions. Studies have found that many people who seek homeopathic care seek it for help with a chronic medical condition.

The World Health Organization noted in 1994 that homeopathy had been integrated into the national health care systems of numerous countries, including Germany, the United Kingdom, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Mexico.

Copyright 2007 Raquel Lazar-Paley

Ayurvedic Medicine

Ayurveda (meaning “the science of life”) is one of the oldest systems of natural health care.  Having evolved among the Brahmin sages of ancient India some 3,000-5,000 years ago, Ayurveda and variations of it have also been practiced for centuries in Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Tibet.  Now considered one of the leading forms of holistic medicine available in the West, Ayurveda addresses all factors that influence our quality of life.

The principles of Ayurveda state that nothing exists in isolation, so that everything you interact with, your diet, family, work or relationships, has an effect on your health and well being. One guiding principle of Ayurveda is that mind and body are connected and that the mind has a profound influence over our health and well-being. While conventional Western medicine is still grounded in the paradigm of mind-body separation, Ayurveda holds that health is more than the absence of disease; it is a dynamic state of balance and integration of body, mind, and spirit.  Ayurveda focuses on establishing and maintaining balance of the life energies within us, rather than on individual symptoms.  Although two people may appear to have the same outward symptoms, their energetic constitutions may be very different; by recognizing the unique constitutional differences of all individuals, Ayurveda recommends different regimens for different types of people.

Ayurvedic treatments are primarily dietary and herbal.  They include preventative healthcare for the entire family; strategies for defeating addictions; and food, purification and rejuvenation treatments prescribed with respect to one’s individual nature, work, social circumstance, age, and season; practical and effective approaches to maintain a healthy weight through constitutionally-determined diet, exercise, herbs, spices, teas, breathing, and psychological aids; and specific treatment plans.  Ayuerveda also encompasses beauty and cosmetic treatments for men and women, including skin, hair, eyes, posture, body odor and general appearance.

Copyright 2007 Raquel Lazar-Paley


Chiropractic is a health care profession that focuses on disorders of the musculoskeletal system and the nervous system and the effects of these disorders on general health.  Doctors of Chiropractic practice a drug-free, hands-on approach to health care that includes patient examination, diagnosis and treatment.  The most common therapeutic procedure performed by doctors of chiropractic is known as “spinal manipulation,” also called “chiropractic adjustment” which is designed to address ailments caused by a single traumatic event, such as improper lifting of a heavy object, or through repetitive stresses, such as sitting in an awkward position with poor spinal posture for an extended period of time.  However, there exist a wide variety of chiropractic techniques, and a different – more holistic – school of thought that focuses on addressing lifestyle changes, better adaptation to emotional and chemical stresses, and strategies that explore the connection between mind, body and spirit.  Chiropractors have broad diagnostic skills and are also trained to provide nutritional, dietary and lifestyle counseling.

The roots of chiropractic care can be traced back to the beginning of recorded time. Writings from China and Greece written in 2,700 B.C. and 1,500 B.C. mention spinal manipulation and the maneuvering of the lower extremities to ease low back pain.  Hippocrates, the Greek physician who lived from 460 to 357 B.C., also published texts detailing the importance of chiropractic care.  In one of his writings he declares, “Get knowledge of the spine, for this is the requisite for many diseases”.   In the United States, the practice of spinal manipulation began gaining momentum in the late nineteenth century.  In 1895, Daniel David Palmer founded the Chiropractic profession in Davenport, Iowa.  Palmer was well read in medical journals of his time and had great knowledge of the developments that were occurring throughout the world regarding anatomy and physiology.  In 1897, Palmer founded the Palmer School of Chiropractic, which has continued to be one of the most prominent chiropractic colleges in the nation.  Throughout the twentieth century, doctors of chiropractic gained legal recognition in all fifty states.  A continuing recognition and respect for the chiropractic profession in the United States has led to growing support for chiropractic care all over the world.

Doctors of chiropractic must complete four to five years at an accredited chiropractic college. The intention of the basic chiropractic curriculum is to provide an in-depth understanding of the structure and function of the human body in health and disease.  An individual studying to become a doctor of chiropractic receives an education in both the basic and clinical sciences and in related health subjects.  The complete curriculum includes a minimum of 4,200 hours of classroom, laboratory and clinical experience. Approximately 555 hours are devoted to learning about adjustive techniques and spinal analysis.  The educational program includes training in the basic medical sciences, including anatomy with human dissection, physiology, and biochemistry. Thorough training is also obtained in differential diagnosis, radiology and therapeutic techniques.  Chiropractic colleges provide as much or more training in anatomy/embryology, physiology, chemistry/biochemistry, microbiology, diagnosis, x-ray and orthopedics than medical schools.  Those intending to become doctors of chiropractic must pass a national board exam and all exams required by the state in which the individual wishes to practice.  Doctors of chiropractic can both diagnose and treat patients; according to the Council on Chiropractic Education, Doctors of Chiropractic are trained as Primary Care providers.

Doctors of Chiropractic have a deep respect for the human body’s ability to heal itself without the use of surgery or medication. As a profession, the primary belief is in natural and conservative methods of health care.  These doctors devote careful attention to the biomechanics, structure and function of the spine, its effects on the musculoskeletal and neurological systems, and the role played by the proper function of these systems in the preservation and restoration of health.  A Doctor of Chiropractic is one who is involved in the treatment and prevention of disease, as well as the promotion of public health, and a wellness approach to patient healthcare.

A 1993 study published in Canada investigated the cost effectiveness of chiropractic care. The results of this study concluded that more chiropractic care would save hundreds of millions of dollars annually with regard to work disability payments and direct health care costs.


Copyright 2007  Raquel Lazar-Paley

Essentials of Maternal-Infant Care

425pregnant.jpgJoin Gloria Lemay, celebrated traditional birth attendant and childbirth educator, in a series of 12 online programs for professionals and students who wish to expand their knowledge and skills, and delve into issues that arise repeatedly in clinical practice. This series is also valuable for parents who want to be fully informed about their choices in pregnancy and birth.

Each session is 90 minutes in length.

Cost: $7.50 per presentation.

Certificates of Completion: $7.50 per session  (completion of post-session questionnaire required).  


Gloria’s twelve online workshops cover the following topics:

Nutrition for Two. Women want to feed themselves and their babies in utero well, and they often make lifestyle changes in pregnancy that they would not have the discipline to make if they were not pregnant. This presentation focuses on how to help women achieve excellent nutrition through fun, inspiring and effective coaching.


Select One…

The Well Woman Check Up.  What is the experienced care provider looking for when she’s doing those urine strips, palpating the uterus and taking blood pressure/pulse? This presentation dissects the prenatal checkup and explores the rationale behind each routine test.


Select One…

Prenatal Diagnostic Tests. As the number of possible prenatal tests continues to climb, care providers must be able to discern which ones will lead to productive action and which ones will only worry and detract from the woman’s pregnancy experience. This presentation enables participants to better advocate for their clients by articulating which prenatal diagnostic tests are reasonable, and which tests can cause more harm than good.


Select One…

Medical Terminology. The keys to the obstetric kingdom lie in the language. Learning medical prefixes, suffixes and root words will give you the tools to interpret the language. You’ll be able to use extra long, impressive words like “neurofibromatosis” in no time, and have fun doing it!


Select One…

Induction of Birth. If only one change happened in North America – the end of 41 week inductions – the cesarean rate would immediately drop. This workshop will explore the history, the misinformation campaign, and the tools needed to end the routine practice of labor inductions.


Select One…

Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension. Most prenatal care is designed to identify the small number of pregnant women who will develop Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension. This condition can be prevented and treated. In this workshop, we will discuss how the diagnosis is made, how to identify the symptoms in the early stages, and which clients are at risk.


Select One…

Gestational Diabetes. Because gestational diabetes can be deadly, it is critical that care providers understand it, and know which women are at risk. This workshop will provide valuable insight and information about how to screen for and help prevent this condition.


Select One…

Herpes Simplex II. One in five North American adults has Herpes Simplex II. After attending this workshop, care providers will know how to care for women with this condition, assuring that every woman they care for is healthy and lesion-free on the day of birth.


Select One…

Water Birth & Lotus Birth. The most exciting ideas in obstetrics come from the women themselves. Water Birth and Lotus Birth are grass roots innovations that have endured for decades. When your clients have questions about these practices, you’ll be ready with answers that address the safety and beauty of these birth innovations.


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Vaginal Birth after Cesarean (VBAC). The VBAC client will have emotions and fears about giving birth that are justifiably heightened. She and her partner will require more time and patience than your other clients. This workshop will focus on advanced planning techniques for changing psychological patterns in the mother and father, and tips for avoiding pitfalls and safely supporting families through this most satisfying and empowering of childbirth experiences.


Select One…

Pediatric Exam of the Newborn. Knowing what the midwife or pediatrician is looking for in the examination of a newborn will enhance your ability to assist with the care of the baby after the immediate post partum period. In this workshop, you will learn to distinguish between normal parental concerns, (e.g., “Is it normal for the baby to turn bright red?”) and signs that the baby should be seen in a hospital emergency ward (e.g., “The baby isn’t feeding and seems lethargic”).


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Business Promotion and Professionalism. Prosperity and business responsibility are matters of integrity. Let’s marry your spiritual calling with the practical reality of paying bills and building a business. This workshop is a realistic and practical guide to the entrepreneurial side of caring for others.  Although the focus will be on the birth business, this ideas raised in this session will be applicable to all care providers.


Select One…


A special thank you to Jennifer Coias for her assistance in compiling this fantastic list of resources.  If you have anything to add, please email us at or post in the comments section below.


View Conscious Woman’s recorded webinar series, The Intact Boy, with Marilyn Milos, Gillian Longley and Ronald Goldman.



The WHOLE Network is a grassroots organization dedicated to providing accurate information about circumcision and the benefits of being intact. We supply doctors, hospitals, midwives, educators, and parents-to-be with well-researched, up-to-date information.

The goal of End Routine Infant Circumcision is to end the practice of non-therapeutic routine infant circumcision in the United States, whether through legislation or through perseverance in educating the American public about the harmful effects of circumcision, the functions of the foreskin, and to also encourage every hospital, and doctors to stop offering the procedure for cosmetic reasons. is home to Parents Against Circumcision Today (PACT).  PACT was founded as a support system for today’s parents who are deciding to keep their babies whole and for parents who are still seeking answers to their circumcision questions. It is our hope that together with those who have crusaded tirelessly for this human rights issue for decades, that we can help move this country into the renaissance of bodily integrity for our American babies.

Circinfosite is a non-profit, humanitarian organization dedicated to providing quality circumcision resources for expecting and future parents.

The goal of Stop The Cut is to disseminate the truth of the consequences of childhood circumcision to medical personnel and the general public in an effort to completely abolish this avoidable and brutal violation of basic human rights.

The Circumcision Information and Resource Pages is an Internet resource that provides  information about all aspects of genital surgery.

Saving Penises is a non-profit group based out of Washington, D.C.  which supplies parents with accurate information regarding circumcision and proper intact care.

The National Organization of Circumcision Information Resource Centers (NOCIRC) is a 501(c)(3) educational non-profit organization committed to securing the birthright of male, female, and intersex children and babies to keep their sex organs intact.

Intact America works to protect babies and children from circumcision and all other forms of medically unnecessary genital alteration, whether carried out for cultural conformity or profit, in medical or non-medical settings.  We seek to achieve our goals through education, advocacy, public policy reform, and the empowerment of our supporters, partners, and volunteers.

Doctors Opposing Circumcision (D.O.C.) is an organization of physicians, and others who are opposed to non-therapeutic neonatal circumcision.  D.O.C. has members in 50 States, 12 Canadian Provinces and Territories, and in nations on six continents. These doctors recognize that no one has the right to forcibly remove sexual body parts from another individual. They also believe that doctors should have no role in this painful, unnecessary procedure inflicted on the newborn.

The National Organization of Restoring Men is a non-profit support group for men who have concerns about being circumcised, are considering foreskin restoration, or are in the process of restoring their foreskins.

The Circumcision Resource Center is an educational organization with the purpose of informing the public and professionals about the practice of male circumcision. Our mission is to raise awareness and facilitate healing. Since 1991, the Center has been a valuable source of male circumcision information for parents and children’s advocates; childbirth educators and allied professionals; medical, mental health, and academic people; Jews; and others. is jam-packed full of useful information.

The blog contains a number of excellent articles, and lists a variety of other blogs with up-to-date research.

Beyond the Bris is a web-based multimedia project that puts real faces and voices to the current Jewish movement against circumcision.

One purpose of the Jewish Circumcision Resource Center is to make known to the Jewish community that there is a growing number of Jews who either have not circumcised their son or would choose not to circumcise a future son.


Paul M. Fleiss, M.D., M.P.H., The Case against Circumcision

Jennifer Coias, The Phony Phimosis Diagnosis

Jennifer Coias, Basic Care of the Intact Child

Jennifer Coias, The Nuts and Bolts of HIV in the USA & Why Circumcision Can’t Protect Men

Jennifer Coias, Circumcision: Already Illegal?

Danelle Frisbie, Ph.D., M.A, Hypospadais: Surgery and Circumcision

Danelle Frisbie, Ph.D., M.A, Death from Circumcision

Yuki (edited by Danelle Frisbie), Breastfeeding & Circumcision

Richard A. Shweder, Disputing the Myth of Sexual Dysfunction of Circumcised Women: An Interview with Fuambai S. Ahmadu.   This academic article explains some of the misconceptions about female genital cutting and how it is done for the same reasons that the USA circumcizes boys.

J. Steven Svoboda, A Rose by Any Other Name? Rethinking the Similarities and Differences between Male and Female Genital Cutting


Robert Darby, A Surgical Tempation: The Demonization of the Foreskin and the Rise of Circumcision in Britain

Leonard Glick, Marked In Your Flesh – A History of Circumcision from Ancient Judea to Modern America

Ronald Goldman, Questioning Circumcision, A Jewish Perspective

Ronald Goldman, Circumcision: The Hidden Trauma

David Gollaher, Circumcision: A History of the World’s Most Controversial Surgery

Marilyn Fayre Milos, George C. Denniston and Frederick Mansfield Hodges, Sexual Mutilations: A Human Tragedy

Marilyn Fayre Milos, George C. Denniston and Frederick Mansfield Hodges, Male and Female Circumcision: Medical Legal and Ethical Considerations in Pediatric Practice

Marilyn Fayre Milos, George C. Denniston and Frederick Mansfield Hodges, Understanding Circumcision: A Multidisciplinary Approach to a Multidimensional Problem

Thomas Ritter and George Denniston, Doctors Re-examine Circumcision


Cut: Slicing Through the Myths of Circumcision, Eliyahu Ungar-Sargon (Director)
Cut is a film that traces the intellectual journey of a man struggling to come to terms with his Jewish identity in the 21st century. Through the lens of circumcision, a central and ancient Jewish ritual, Cut asks the viewer to contemplate what happens when the Jewish tradition collides with the modern values of autonomy and individuality. Using the latest in scientific research, as well as conversations with rabbis, historians, and activists, Cut asks difficult questions about male circumcision and provides a rare emotional and intellectual experience.






Lessons of Circumcision & Effective Communication

Circumcision is offered as an option to virtually every mother of a male child born in an American hospital. This parental decision can have unrecognized immediate and long-term consequences on the health of the child and parent.  The lessons of circumcision are many; they remind us of our core values and are applicable to other areas of life. These lessons involve the powerful impact of early infant experience, cultural values, the limitations of science, intellect vs. instinct, and how to make important childcare decisions.

It is essential that health care providers have accurate, current circumcision information and communicate it appropriately and effectively.  It is also important for prospective parents to be able to communicate with their partners effectively.  Because circumcision is an emotional topic, health care providers and parents need not only the facts but also the skills to talk about it in a sensitive way.  The second presentation in Part II of our Intact Boy series.
This session is 90 minutes in length.Cost: $7.50

Certificate of Completion: $7.50 (completion of post-session questionnaire required).

Continuing Education Units are available for some professional groups. To view a listing of CEU opportunities, click here.